The analysis in closed system for ensure the volatile organic compound from our interested samples only and avoid contamination from the environment. There are many sampling techniques such as passive sampling, active sampling and dynamic headspace. For passive sampling in chamber (closed system) for hypothetical situation by put the sample in the close system such […]
Since the anti-blocking system (ABS) came onto the market and diesel direct injection systems became popular mid of the 90’s, technical cleanliness has fully established itself as a quality criterion in the automotive and its supply chains. Damage caused by particles was recognized as a problem since then. The problem had led a growing demand for a standardized method for inspecting particulate contamination. The publication of VDA Volume 19 “Technical cleanliness – Inspection of particle contamination” was released in January 2005. As an international standard, ISO 16232 was developed in 2007 to be equivalent of VDA Volume 19.