Since the anti-blocking system (ABS) came onto the market and diesel direct injection systems became popular mid of the 90’s, technical cleanliness has fully established itself as a quality criterion in the automotive and its supply chains. Damage caused by particles was recognized as a problem since then. The problem had led a growing demand for a standardized method for inspecting particulate contamination. The publication of VDA Volume 19 “Technical cleanliness – Inspection of particle contamination” was released in January 2005. As an international standard, ISO 16232 was developed in 2007 to be equivalent of VDA Volume 19.
VOC and Telecommunication
Micro-sectioning for Semiconductor